The Beginner’s Book of Salah [A Step-By-Step Guide]

The Beginner’s Book of Salah



As-Salah: Its Meaning and Significance

Islam represents a comprehensive way of life, the path chosen by Allah for all of humanity. The Quran explicitly states, “Surely, the way of life acceptable to Allah is Islam.” (Surah Ali Imran 3:19). Islam serves as the guiding principle (Hidayah) for all aspects of life, founded upon five fundamental obligations, referred to as the pillars of Islam (Arkānul Islam). The first and foremost of these is Ash-Shahadah, the declaration of faith. This declaration holds a central position in all Islamic duties. Ash-Shahadah involves bearing witness that there is no deity but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. Once an individual willingly professes this faith, they become a Muslim, assuming certain specific responsibilities, one of which is As-Salah, known as the second pillar of Islam. In addition to Ash-Shahadah and As-Salah, the other three core obligations encompass Az-Zakāh (Welfare Contribution), As-Sawm (Fasting during Ramadan), and Al-Hajj (Pilgrimage to Makkah).

As-Salah, also known as Namaz (a Persian term), represents the most paramount of all acts of worship (Ibadah). As-Salah comprises prayers offered to Allah through specific words and actions as exemplified by Prophet Muhammad.

Translating As-Salah into English poses some challenges. The closest English terms are ‘prayer,’ ‘blessings,’ ‘supplication,’ or ‘grace.’ While the word ‘prayer’ can encompass various forms of prayer, As-Salah, in the context of Islam, signifies a prescribed prayer that must be performed in a specific manner at designated times. Therefore, it is advisable to consistently use the Arabic term As-Salah.

As-Salah serves as a tangible manifestation of our faith (Iman) in Allah and Islam. It distinguishes a believer from a non-believer (Kafir). This distinction is why Allah has decreed: “Guard strictly your Salah, especially the middle Şalah and stand before Allah with all devotion.” (Suratul Baqarah 2:238). As-Salah aids us in becoming virtuous, well-mannered, disciplined, humble, and successful. Prophet Muhammad emphasized, “The first thing that the servant of Allah will be held accountable for on the Day of Judgment is As-Salah. If it was performed diligently, their actions will be judged favorably; if it was neglected, their actions will be considered deficient.” (At-Tirmidhi and Abū Dāwūd). Allah’s guidance in the Quran further asserts, “Surely, Salah keeps you away from indecency and evil.” (Suratul ‘Ankabut 29:45). Commencing As-Salah at the age of seven is recommended, with a commitment to regular practice by the age of ten.

It is imperative to comprehend the significance of As-Salah and pledge to perform it daily at prescribed times. By doing so, Allah will guide and reward you.


The Purpose of As-Salah: A Guide to Its Significance

Understanding the Role of As-Salah

As-Salah, or the act of prayer in Islam, plays a crucial role in the life of a Muslim. This practice is not just a personal obligation but also a communal one. The Quran instructs us to establish As-Salah (Agimus Salain), signifying that Allah not only commands us to pray but also encourages us to promote this practice among others. Our lives are intertwined within the broader society of humanity, and As-Salah serves as a vital tool in aligning both individuals and societies with the divine laws of Allah.

1. Remembrance of Allah (Dhikruliah)

One of the primary purposes of As-Salah is to remember Allah (Dhikruliah). The Quran explicitly states, “Establish As-Salah to remember Me.” (Surah Taha 20:14). Remembering Allah goes beyond mere recitation; it encompasses obedience to His guidance in all aspects of life. As-Salah is the means through which this remembrance is actualized.

2. Aligning Words and Actions

In Islam, actions must align with words, emphasizing the importance of integrity between what one professes and practices. After declaring the Ash-Shahadah, the testimony of faith, Muslims are expected to be prepared to perform As-Salah. This readiness to pray is the first tangible manifestation of their testimony. It signifies a commitment to act upon their declaration. In Islam, mere words hold little value if they are not accompanied by corresponding actions.

3. As-Salah as a Catalyst for Behavioral Change

As-Salah is not meant to be a ritualistic exercise devoid of meaning; rather, it should serve as a catalyst for positive behavioral change. It should inspire Muslims to live in obedience to Allah in all aspects of life. If one’s regular practice of As-Salah does not lead to improved conduct and alignment with divine principles, it becomes essential to reflect and identify areas where they may be falling short.

Embracing the Transformative Power of As-Salah

In summary, As-Salah is not merely a set of rituals but a profound practice with multiple dimensions. It serves to remind us of Allah, ensuring that our actions align with our words and guiding us towards a life characterized by obedience to divine laws. Embracing the transformative power of As-Salah can lead to personal growth and a society that adheres to the guidance of Allah.

Understanding Ibadah and As-Salah

What is Ibadah?

Ibadah, an Arabic term, signifies acts of worship and obedience to Allah, the Almighty. The Quran clearly states, “Indeed, I created jinn and mankind only to worship Me” (Suratudh Dhariya: 51:56). In essence, every action we undertake can be an act of Ibadah if it is done with the intention of seeking Allah’s pleasure. This includes obeying our parents, showing respect to our elders, consuming Halal (permissible) food, speaking the truth, refraining from lying, keeping our promises, showing generosity, assisting the less fortunate, and conducting honest trade and politics. These actions, when performed with sincerity, become acts of worship in Islam. Ultimately, our life’s purpose is to strive for Allah’s pleasure through our worship, and As-Salah (prayer) plays a significant role in achieving this goal.

The Importance of As-Salah:

Among the fundamental duties in Islam, which include As-Salah (prayer), Az-Zakah (charity), As-Sawm (fasting), and Al-Hajj (pilgrimage), As-Salah holds a special place. These duties collectively prepare us to obey Allah’s commands in all aspects of our lives. As-Salah, in particular, stands out as the most crucial of these four basic obligations.

The Significance of As-Salah:

  1. Drawing Closer to the Creator: As-Salah serves as a means to establish a closer connection with our Creator, Allah. Through regular prayer, we nurture our relationship with Him, fostering a sense of closeness and devotion.
  2. Facilitating Obedience: As-Salah plays a pivotal role in enabling us to obey Allah’s commands more effectively. It acts as a training ground for discipline, self-control, and adherence to His guidance.

Allah’s Pleasure and Rewards: When we observe As-Salah with sincerity and devotion, Allah, our Creator, becomes pleased with our obedience. In return, He bestows upon us His blessings, inner peace, and happiness in both our worldly life and the hereafter (Akhirah).

In summary, Ibadah encompasses all acts of worship and obedience to Allah, which form the core purpose of human existence. As-Salah, among the fundamental duties of Islam, holds a special significance, helping us draw closer to our Creator, facilitating obedience to His commands, and earning His pleasure and rewards.


The Connection Between As-Salah and War

Understanding War:

Jihad, in Islam, signifies striving diligently to uphold what is right (Ma’ruf) and eradicate what is wrong (Munkar) within a society. It embodies the commitment to promote righteousness and eliminate wrongdoing. An integral part of the Muslim faith, Jihad is not limited to physical combat but extends to various forms of effort, including verbal and spiritual endeavors.

Ibadah as Preparation for War:

Ibadah, or acts of worship and obedience to Allah, should serve as preparation for engaging in Jihad in the way of Allah. True Ibadah goes beyond ritualistic practices; it should nurture a sense of duty to work for the cause of Allah. As-Salah, one of the fundamental acts of worship, plays a crucial role in this preparation, strengthening our connection with Allah and instilling discipline.

The Integral Nature of Islamic Duties:

In Islam, every aspect of human life is interconnected and forms a cohesive whole. The declaration of faith (Ash-Shahada) serves as a foundation that links with other fundamental duties such as As-Salah (prayer), Az-Zakah (charity), As-Sawm (fasting), and Al-Hajj (pilgrimage). These duties collectively prepare individuals for Jihad fi sabi lillah, which is Jihad in the way of Allah.

The Eternal Life and the Day of Judgment:

Islamic teachings emphasize that life does not culminate with death. The true and everlasting life awaits in the hereafter. Accordingly, believers are encouraged to strive for success in the eternal life that follows. On the Day of Judgment, every action from this worldly life will be scrutinized by Allah. Those who succeed will be rewarded with entry into Paradise (Al-Jannah), a realm of eternal happiness and joy. Conversely, those who fall short will face the consequences in Hell (Jahannam), a place of severe suffering and anguish.

War fi sabi lillah: The Path to Success:

Jihad fi sabi lillah, or Jihad in the way of Allah, represents the most assured path to success in the life hereafter. By actively participating in efforts to establish righteousness and eliminate wrongdoing, individuals align themselves with Allah’s will. This commitment not only benefits society but also ensures spiritual growth and fulfillment, ultimately leading to success in the afterlife.

In summary, Jihad encompasses the striving for righteousness and the eradication of wrongdoing within society. Ibadah, particularly As-Salah, serves as a vital preparation for Jihad, connecting various aspects of the Islamic way of life. Believers are encouraged to work towards success in the eternal life after death, with Jihad fi sabi lillah being a sure path to achieve it.


The Five Daily Prayers (As-Salah)

Muslims are required to perform As-Salah, or the act of prayer, five times a day. These five daily prayers are as follows:

  1. Fajr Prayer (Dawn Prayer): This prayer is offered before sunrise, during the early hours of the morning.
  2. Zuhr Prayer (After Midday Prayer): The Zuhr prayer is performed after the sun has passed its zenith, marking midday.
  3. Asr Prayer (Late Afternoon Prayer): This prayer takes place in the late afternoon, typically before sunset.
  4. Maghrib Prayer (After Sunset Prayer): The Maghrib prayer is performed just after the sun has set.
  5. Isha Prayer (Night Prayer): The Isha prayer is conducted during the night, after twilight has faded away.

These five daily prayers serve as a significant aspect of a Muslim’s spiritual life and are essential for maintaining a strong connection with Allah.

Preparation for As-Salah – At-Taharah (Purification)

As-Salah, the act of prayer, is a fundamental practice in Islam, and it must be performed in a specific manner as prescribed by Allah and demonstrated by Prophet Muhammad. To do so, proper preparation is essential, and this preparation includes At-Taharah, or purification.

At-Taharah signifies cleanliness and purity, and it holds significant importance in Islam. Allah emphasizes the importance of cleanliness in the Quran: “Surely Allah loves those who turn to Him and those who care for cleanliness.” (Quran, Surah Al-Baqarah 2:222). Prophet Muhammad further reinforced this by stating that purification is the key to As-Salah (Mishkat Al-Masabih) and that it constitutes one half of faith (Muslim).

Achieving Taharah involves ensuring cleanliness of the body and clothes. Here’s how it can be attained:

  1. Body Purification:
  • Ghusl (Full Body Wash): Perform Ghusl by using clean water to wash your entire body. This is required under specific circumstances.
  • Wudu’ (Ablution): Wudu’ is a ritual purification that must be performed before each Salah. It involves specific steps and is essential for Salah.

2. Clothes Purification:

  • Ensure your clothes are clean and free from any traces of human or animal excrement, such as urine or stool.

In Islam, both physical cleanliness and the purity of one’s heart are equally significant. A clean heart entails the belief in the worship of the one true God, Allah, and the rejection of false gods.

There are specific situations that necessitate Ghusl, where performing Wudu’ alone is insufficient for offering Salah. These situations include:

  1. After Sexual Intercourse Between Husband and Wife 2. After Ejaculation of Semen (e.g., wet dreams) 3. For Women, After Menstruation and Up to 40 Days After Childbirth

The obligatory (Fard) elements of Ghusl include:

  • Rinsing the mouth thoroughly
  • Rinsing the nose up to the nasal bone
  • Washing all parts of the body, including the hair, thoroughly

The steps for performing Ghusl are as follows:

  • Begin with the intention (Niyah) to cleanse yourself from impurities.
  • Wash your hands up to the wrists three times.
  • Thoroughly wash your private parts.
  • Perform Wudu’.
  • Finally, pour water over your entire body, including your hair, and wash your body three times.

By following these purification rituals, Muslims prepare themselves to perform Salah in a state of cleanliness and devotion to Allah.

[Reference: Quran, Surah Al-Baqarah 2:222, Sahih Muslim, Mishkat Al-Masabih]


Conditions for As-Salah (Prayer)

As-Salah, the act of prayer in Islam, involves certain conditions and requirements that must be met when performing this sacred act of worship:

  1. Cleanliness of the Whole Body: Before engaging in Salah, ensure that your entire body is clean and free from impurities.
  2. Cleanliness of Clothes: Wear clean and pure clothing for Salah. It’s essential to be in a state of physical cleanliness.
  3. Cleanliness of the Place of Prayer: The area where you intend to pray should also be clean and free from impurities.
  4. Modest Dress Code:
  • For Males: Men should cover their bodies from the navel to the knees.
  • For Females: Women should cover their entire bodies except for the face, hands, feet below the ankles, and the hands.
  1. Facing Al-Ka’bah (Qibla): During Salah, you should face the holy city of Mecca, where Al-Ka’bah is located. This direction is known as the Qibla.
  2. Making Niyah (Intention): Before beginning the prayer, have a sincere intention in your heart. Your intention should reflect your intention to perform the specific Salah and your devotion to Allah.
  3. Offering As-Salah at Set Times: Salah must be performed at specific times throughout the day and night. These designated times are Fajr (dawn), Dhuhr (midday), Asr (late afternoon), Maghrib (after sunset), and Isha (night).
  4. Saying As-Salah in Arabic: While it is recommended to recite the prayer in Arabic, especially the opening chapter (Al-Fatiha) and specific verses from the Quran during Salah, you can also offer your personal supplications and praises to Allah in your native language during your prayer.

By adhering to these conditions, Muslims can perform Salah properly, maintaining a state of purity, humility, and devotion in their worship.

Al-Wudu (Ablution) – Preparation for Salah

Before engaging in Salah (prayer), it is essential to prepare oneself through a ritual known as Al-Wudu (Ablution). Al-Wudu involves cleansing specific parts of the body, ensuring cleanliness for the act of prayer. This purification process is a vital step in performing Salah with devotion and sincerity.

Allah emphasizes the importance of cleanliness in the Quran: “O you who believe, when you prepare for Salah, wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows; rub your heads and wash your feet up to the ankles. And if you are unclean, purify yourself.” (Suratul Ma’idah 5:6)

The steps for Al-Wudu are as follows:

  1. Intention and Tasmiyah (Bismillah): Begin by making a sincere intention (Niyah) to perform Al-Wudu. Then recite the Tasmiyah: “Bismillahir rahmanir rahim” (In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Kind).
  2. Wash Hands: Wash both hands up to the wrists three times, ensuring that water reaches between the fingers.
  3. Mouth Rinse: Put a handful of water into your mouth and rinse it thoroughly three times.
  4. Nostril Cleaning: Sniff water into the nostrils three times to clean them and then wash the tip of the nose.
  5. Face Wash: Wash the face three times, starting from the right ear to the left ear and from the forehead to the throat.
  6. Arm Washing: Wash the right arm, and then the left arm, thoroughly from wrist to elbow three times.
  7. Head Wipe: Move the wet palms of both hands over the head, starting from the top of the forehead to the neck.
  8. Ear Cleaning: Rub the wet fingers into the grooves and holes of both ears and pass the wet thumbs behind the ears.
  9. Nape Wipe: Pass the backs of the wet hands over the nape.
  10. Foot Wash: Wash both feet up to the ankles, starting from the right foot and ensuring water reaches between the toes and all parts of the feet.

If you had performed a full Al-Wudu before putting on socks, there is no need to remove them every time you renew your ablution. Instead, you can simply wipe the upper part of the socks with wet fingers. This method is valid for twenty-four hours (or three days during a journey).

Upon completing Al-Wudu, recite:

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَاَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

“Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallāhu wahdahu la sharika lahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasuluh” (I testify that there is no god but Allah, and He is One with no partners, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger).

Al-Wudu ensures that a Muslim is physically and spiritually prepared for Salah, allowing for a state of purity and devotion during prayer.


Renewing Wudu’ and At-Tayammum (Dry Ablution)

In Islam, it’s essential to renew your Wudu’ (ablution) under specific circumstances:

  1. Natural Discharges: Renew your Wudu’ after natural discharges such as urine, stool, or passing wind.
  2. Flow of Blood or Pus: If there is a flow of blood or pus from any part of the body, it necessitates the renewal of Wudu’.
  3. Full Mouth Vomiting: After a full mouth vomiting episode, perform Wudu’ again.
  4. Falling Asleep or Losing Consciousness: If you fall asleep or lose consciousness, your Wudu’ becomes invalid.
  5. Touching the Sexual Organs: Touching the sexual organs without a barrier invalidates Wudu’, so it needs to be renewed.

However, Islam is a practical way of life, and it understands that sometimes performing Wudu’ might not be possible due to certain circumstances:

  1. Water Unavailability: If water is not available at all, making Wudu’ becomes impossible.
  2. Insufficient Water: When the available water is insufficient (e.g., only enough for drinking), it’s not feasible for Wudu’.
  3. Harmful Water Usage: If using water is harmful, such as during sickness, performing Wudu’ is not advised.

In such situations, Islam allows for Tayammum (Dry Ablution) as an alternative. To perform Tayammum:

  1. Intention (Niyah): Begin by making the intention by saying, “Bismillahir rahmanir rahim” (In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Kind).
  2. Contact with Earth: Lightly touch the earth, sand, stone, or any object with dust on it.
  3. Face Wipe: Blow off the dust from your hands and wipe your face once, similar to Wudu’.
  4. Arm Wipe: Repeat step 2 and wipe your right arm from wrist to elbow with the left hand and the left arm with the right hand.

Tayammum is a practical solution when Wudu’ cannot be performed, ensuring that you can still offer your Salah (prayer) even in challenging circumstances.

The Adhan: The Call to Prayer

Introduction Fard (compulsory) Salah is preferably offered in congregation at a mosque, while other Salah can be prayed privately at home. To gather Muslims for Salah and announce its time, Prophet Muhammad introduced the Adhan. The Adhan serves as a signal that the time for Salah has arrived.

The Mu’adhdhin: Caller to Prayer The person who delivers the Adhan is known as the Mu’adhdhin. The Quran acknowledges the importance of this role: “Who speaks better than one who calls to Allah and acts righteously” (Surah Ha Mim As-Sajdah 41:33).

The First Mu’adhdhin of Islam The honor of being the first Mu’adhdhin of Islam belongs to Bilal bin Rabaḥ. When delivering the Adhan, the Mu’adhdhin stands in the minaret or courtyard of the mosque, facing the Qiblah. They raise their hands to their ears and proclaim:

In Arabic:

  • اللهُ اكْبَرُ (Allahu akbar) – Allah is the Greatest (x4)
  • أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إله إلا الله (Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallah) – I testify that there is no god but Allah (x2)
  • أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَّسُوْلُ اللهِ (Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar rasulullah) – I testify that Muhammad is Allah’s messenger (x2)
  • حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلوةِ (Haiya ‘alaş şalah) – Rush to Salah (x2)
  • حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلوةِ (Haiya alas salah) – Rush to Salah
  • عَلَى الْفَلَاحِ (Haiya alal falaḥ) – Rush to success
  • الله اكبر (Allahu akbar) – Allah is the Greatest (x2)
  • لا اله الا الله (La ilaha illallah) – There is no god but Allah

For Fajr Salah (Dawn Prayer): The following words are added after “Haiya ‘alal falah”:

  • الصَّلوةُ خَيْر مِنَ النَّوْم (Aşşalatu khairum minan nawm) – Salah is better than sleep (x2)

The Adhan beautifully reminds Muslims of the time for Salah and emphasizes its significance in their lives.


Al-Iqamah: The Call to Establish Prayer

Iqamah is the second call to Salah, uttered inside the mosque at the start of congregational Salah (Jama’ah). It signifies the commencement of Salah when worshippers have gathered and formed rows for prayer. During Iqamah, the Mu’adhdhin recites the same words as the Adhan, with some additions. Specifically, after proclaiming “Haiya alal falaḥ” (Rush to success), the following words are included:

قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلوة Qad qamatiş salah: “Salah has begun.”

As the Mu’adhdhin recites these phrases, those present should follow along, repeating after him. Additionally, when he says “Haiya ‘alas salah” (Rush to Salah) and “Haiya ‘alal falah” (Rush to success), it is recommended to say:

لاَ حَوْلَ وَلاَ قُوَّةَ إِلا بالله La hawla wala quwwata illa billah: “There is no power and strength except Allah.”

Furthermore, after hearing the Mu’adhdhin say “Assalātu khairum minan nawm” (Salah is better than sleep), it is suggested to respond:

صَدَقْتَ وبَرَرْت Sadagta wa bararta: “You told the truth, and you did good.”

Lastly, when the Mu’adhdhin proclaims “Qad qamatiş salah,” it is appropriate to say:

أَقَامَهَا اللهُ وَأَدَامَهَا Aqamahallahu wa adāmahā: “May Allah establish it and make it permanent.”

Iqamah serves as a declaration to initiate the congregational prayer, and these responses align the hearts and intentions of the worshippers as they prepare to engage in the sacred act of Salah.


Dua After Adhan: Supplication Following the Call to Prayer

Arabic: اَللّهُمَ رَبَّ هذهِ الدَّعْوَةِ التَّامَّةِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْقَائِمَةِ آتِ مُحَمَّدَ الْوَسِيْلَةَ وَالقَضِيْلَةَ وَالدَّرَجَةَ الرَّفِيعَةَ وَابْعَثْهُ مَقَامًا مَّحْمُودَ بِالَّذِئ وَعَد تَهُ وَارْزُقْنَا شَفَاعَتَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّكَ لاَ تُخْلِفُ الْمِيْعَادَ .

Translation: “O Allah, Lord of this perfect call and established prayer, grant Muhammad the position of intercession and superiority, and raise him to the praiseworthy station that You have promised him. Bestow upon us his intercession on the Day of Resurrection, for You never fail in Your promise.”

This supplication is recited after the Adhan, the call to prayer, as a means of seeking Allah’s blessings, intercession through the Prophet Muhammad, and the fulfillment of His promises. It is a humble invocation for the highest blessings and favors in the Hereafter.

Details of As-Salah

Types of As-Salah:

  1. Fard (Compulsory): These are the obligatory Salah that every Muslim must perform. They are further divided into two types:
    • Fard ‘Ain: Salah that must be performed by every individual Muslim, such as the five daily Salah.
    • Fard Kifayah: Salah that does not have to be performed by every Muslim; if some members of the community perform them, others will be excused, e.g., Salatul Janazah.
  2. Wajib: These are Salah that are also obligatory but come next in importance to Fard Salah, such as Salatul Id and Salatul Witr.
  3. Sunnah: These are Salah that were either performed by Prophet Muhammad himself or approved by him. There are two types of Sunnah Salah:
    • Sunnah Mu’akkadah: The Salah which the Prophet regularly performed.
    • Sunnah Ghair Mu’akkadah: The Salah which he occasionally performed.
  4. Nafl: These are voluntary Salah that a person can perform on their own initiative to become closer to Allah.

Essentials of As-Salah (Fard Actions in Salah):

  1. Niyah: Making the intention for Salah.
  2. Takbiratul Ihram: Saying “Allahu akbar” at the beginning of the Salah.
  3. Qiyam: Standing upright.
  4. Qira’ah: Reciting the Quran.
  5. Rukoo: Bowing down in a way to form a right angle at the waist.
  6. Sujood: Prostrating in a way that involves touching the ground with the palms of both hands, the forehead, the tip of the nose, the knees, and the toes of both feet.
  7. Qu’ud: Sitting down in a specific position at the end of certain Salah, with the right foot upright on the toes and the left foot reclining under the buttocks.
  8. Salam: Turning the head to the right and saying “Assalamu ‘alaikum wa rahmatullah,” then turning to the left and repeating it, signifying the completion of Salah.

These essential actions must be performed correctly for the Salah to be valid and accepted in Islam.


Wajibat of Salah (Necessary Actions in Salah):

The following actions are considered Wajibat (necessary) in Salah and should also be performed correctly. They hold significant importance in Salah, just after the Fard actions:

  1. Reciting Suratul Fatihah: Recite Suratul Fatihah and some other verses from the Quran in the first two rak’ahs of any Fard Salah.
  2. Reciting Suratul Fatihah: It is necessary to recite Suratul Fatihah in every rak’ah of every Salah.
  3. Reciting Additional Verses: Recite a small Surah, a long verse, or three small verses in each rak’ah of Salah except in the third and fourth rak’ah of Fard Salah.
  4. Maintaining Order: Maintain the order of qiyam (standing), qira’ah (recitation), ruku (bowing), sujud (prostration), qu’ud (sitting), and salam (ending).
  5. Standing Upright: Stand upright after ruku (bowing).
  6. Sitting Up: Sit up between the two sujud (prostrations).
  7. Performing Calmly: Perform each part of Salah calmly without haste (I’tidal).
  8. Sitting for Tashahhud: Sit while reciting the first Tashahhud in a three or four rak’ah Salah.
  9. Reciting Tashahhud: Recite Tashahhud in both sittings in all the three and four rak’ah Salah.
  10. Reciting Aloud: Recite Suratul Fatihah and another Surah or verses aloud in the first two Fard rak’ahs of Fajr, Maghrib, and Isha’, in all rak’ahs of Jumu’ah, Id Salah, Tarawih, and in Witr during the Islamic month of Ramadan.
  11. Finishing with Salam: Conclude Salah by saying the words of Salam.
  12. Du’a’ Al-Qunut: Recite Du’a’ Al-Qunut in the third rak’ah of Witr Salah.
  13. Takbir in Id Salah: Say six or twelve Takbir in both Id Salah.
  14. Sajdatus Sahw: Perform Sajdatus Sahw in case of mistakes during Salah.

These Wajibat, when performed correctly, contribute to the completeness and validity of Salah.



Sunnah Actions in Salah:

Here are the Sunnah (recommended) actions to be observed during Salah:

  1. Raising Hands: Raise both hands to the ears when saying Allahu akbar.
  2. Facing the Qiblah: Face straight towards the Qiblah when saying Allahu akbar.
  3. Imam’s Recitation: The Imam says Allahu akbar aloud at different stages of Salah, and the followers (Muqtadis) say “Sami’ allāhu liman hamidah” (Allah listens to those who praise Him) while getting up from ruku’ (bowing).
  4. Hand Placement: Place the right hand over the left hand and position them below the navel or on the chest.
  5. Silent Recitation: Recite Thana’ (Subhanaka…), Ta’awwudh (A’udhu billahi…), and Tasmiyah (Bismillah…) silently.
  6. Recitation in Third and Fourth Rak’ah: Recite only Suratul Fatihah silently in the third and fourth rak’ah of all Fard Salah.
  7. Saying Amin: Say Amin quietly or loudly upon completing the recitation of Suratul Fatihah.
  8. Subhanallah in Ruku’ and Sujud: Say “Subhana rabbiyal ‘azim” three times in ruku’ (bowing) and “Subḥāna rabbiyal ala” three times in Sujud (prostration).
  9. Head and Neck Alignment: Keep the head and neck straight during ruku’ (bowing).
  10. Imam’s and Muqtadis’ Response: The Imam says “Sami’ allahu liman hamidah,” and the followers (Muqtadis) respond with “Rabbana lakal hamd” (O our Lord, praise be to You) while getting up from ruku’ (bowing).
  11. Sujud Posture: While going into Sujud (prostration), place the knees on the floor first, followed by the hands, nose, and forehead.
  12. Hand Placement Between Sujud: Place the palms near the knees when sitting between the Sujud (prostrations).
  13. Sitting Posture: Sit correctly between two Sujud, ensuring proper foot placement.
  14. Finger Movement: Lift the forefinger of the right hand at the words “Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallah” during the recitation of Tashahhud.
  15. Darood after Tashahhud: Recite As-Salah alan Nabiy (Darood) after the final Tashahhud.
  16. Salutation: Turn the head to the right and then to the left when concluding Salah.

These Sunnah actions enhance the completeness and the spiritual experience of Salah.


Fard Rak’ahs of As-Salah:

The obligatory (Fard) rak’ahs in each of the daily Salah are as follows:

  1. Fajr: 2 rak’ahs
  2. Zuhr: 4 rak’ahs
  3. Aşr: 4 rak’ahs
  4. Maghrib: 3 rak’ahs
  5. Isha’: 4 rak’ahs
  6. Jumu’ah: 2 rak’ahs (in place of Zuhr on Friday)

Number of Rak’ahs in the Five Daily Salah:

In the five daily Salah, the number of rak’ahs is as follows:

  • Fajr: 2 Sunnah, 2 Fard
  • Zuhr: 4 Sunnah, 4 Fard, 2 Sunnah, 2 Nafl
  • Aşr: 4 Sunnah, 4 Fard
  • Maghrib: 3 Fard, 2 Sunnah, 2 Nafl
  • Isha’: 4 Sunnah, 4 Fard, 2 Sunnah, 2 Nafl, 3 Witr

(Note: The Sunnah rak’ahs before ‘Asr and ‘Isha’ are considered Ghair Mu’akkadah, which means they are recommended but not strongly emphasized.)

The total rak’ahs in each of the five daily Salah are as follows:

  • Fajr: 4 rak’ahs
  • Zuhr: 12 rak’ahs
  • Aşr: 8 rak’ahs
  • Maghrib: 7 rak’ahs
  • Isha’: 17 rak’ahs

Additionally, on Fridays, during Jumu’ah Salah, there are 2 rak’ahs offered in place of the Zuhr Salah.

Occasional Salah (Additional to the Five Daily Salah):

In addition to the five daily Salah, there are occasional Salah performed on specific occasions. The number of rak’ahs in these Salah are as follows:

  • Jumu’ah: 2 Sunnah, 2 Fard (Friday Prayer)
  • Idul Fitr: 2 Wajib (Eid Prayer for Eid al-Fitr)
  • Idul Adha: 2 Wajib (Eid Prayer for Eid al-Adha)
  • Tarawih: 20 Sunnah (Nightly Prayers during Ramadan)
  • Tahajjud: (Prayer performed after midnight and before dawn)

(Note: Tarawih is offered after the two Sunnah rak’ah of Isha’ but before the three rak’ah of Witr. Tarawih is discussed in chapter 5.)

The Tahajjud prayer, performed after midnight and before dawn, is also an important optional prayer but is discussed in chapter 5.


Times When You Must Not Pray:

There are specific times when you must refrain from performing Salah (prayer):

  1. From the beginning of sunrise until approximately 15-20 minutes after full sunrise.
  2. When the sun is at its highest point (zenith or meridian).
  3. From the beginning of sunset until the sun is fully set.
  4. For women during menstruation and for up to 40 days during post-childbirth bleeding.

Additional Times When You Must Not Perform Nafl Salah (Voluntary Prayers):

In addition to the above times, it is important not to engage in Nafl Salah (voluntary prayers) during the following periods:

  1. Between the Fard (obligatory) Salah of Salatul Fajr and sunrise.
  2. Between the Fard Salah of Salatul Asr and sunset.
  3. Before the Fard Salah of Salatul Maghrib.
  4. During the Khutbahs (sermons) of Salatul Jumu’ah (Friday Prayer) and Salatul ‘Id (Eid Prayer).
  5. Between Salatul Fajr and Salatul ‘Id.
  6. After Salatul ‘Id at the place where the Salah has been offered.
  7. During the Hajj pilgrimage at Arafat after Salatul Zuhr and Salatul Asr have been combined and offered together.
  8. Between Salatul Maghrib and Salatul Isha’ at Muzdalifah during the Hajj pilgrimage.
  9. When there is only a little time left to perform the Fard Salah of any particular prayer.

These guidelines help ensure that Salah is performed at appropriate times and with the necessary focus and reverence.



How to Perform Salah (Prayer)

In this chapter, you will learn how to perform Salah (prayer) correctly. Ensure that you have performed Wudu’ (ablution), have a clean body, clean clothes, and are in a clean place before beginning your Salah. Here are the steps to perform Salah:

  1. Stand Upright (Qiyam): Position yourself on your prayer mat, facing the direction of Al-Ka’bah. This direction is called Qiblah in Arabic. In England, the Qiblah direction is towards the southeast, but it may vary in other countries. Ensure you determine the correct Qiblah direction before starting your Salah.
  2. Niyah (Intention): Make your intention (Niyah) either verbally or in your mind. You can say, “I intend to pray [mention the type and number of rak’ahs, e.g., Fajr, 2 rak’ahs] for Allah, facing Al-Ka’bah.”
  3. Takbiratul Ihram: Raise your hands up to your ears (for women and girls, up to their shoulders) and say “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is the Greatest). This is known as Takbiratul Ihram, signifying that all worldly matters are now forbidden to you.
  4. Hand Placement and Opening Supplication: Place your right hand on your left hand just below the navel or on your chest (for women and girls). Then, recite:
    • Supplication in Arabic: “سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ وَتَبَارَكَ اسْمُكَ وَتَعَالَى جَدُّكَ وَلَا إِلَهَ غَيْرُكَ”
    • Translation: “O Allah, glory and praise are for You, and blessed is Your name, and exalted is Your Majesty; there is no god but You.”
    • Supplication in Arabic: “أَعُوْذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّحِيْمِ”
    • Translation: “I seek shelter in Allah from the rejected Satan.”
    • Supplication in Arabic: “بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيْمِ”
    • Translation: “In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Kind.”
  5. Recitation of Suratul Fatihah: Recite Suratul Fatihah, the opening chapter of the Qur’an:
    • “الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ. الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيْمِ. مَلِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّيْنِ. إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِيْنُ. اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيْمَ. صِرَاطَ الَّذِيْنَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّينَ.”
    • Translation: “All praise is for Allah, the Lord of the Universe. The Most Merciful, the Most Kind. Master of the Day of Judgment. You alone we worship, from You alone we seek help. Guide us along the straight path. The path of those whom You have favored, not of those who earned Your anger nor of those who went astray.”
    • After reciting Suratul Fatihah, say “Amin” quietly or loudly.
  6. Recitation of Additional Quranic Verses: You may recite any other passage from the Qur’an, such as Surah Al-Ikhlas (Chapter 112), “قُلْ هُوَ اللهُ أَحَدٌ…”
  7. Bowing Down (Ruku): Bow down, saying “Allahu Akbar,” and place your hands on your knees. While in this position, say “Subḥāna rabbiyal `azim” (Glory to my Lord, the Great) three times. This is called Ruku.
  8. Standing Up from Ruku: Stand up from the Ruku position, saying “Sami allāhu liman hamidah” (Allah hears those who praise Him) followed by “Rabbana lakal hamd” (Our Lord, praise be to You). This is called I’tidal, and you return to the standing position (Qiyam).
    1. Prostration (Sujud): Say “Allahu Akbar” and prostrate, with your forehead, nose, palms of both hands, knees, and toes touching the floor. While in this position, recite “Subhana rabbiyal a’la” (Glory to my Lord, the Highest) three times. Ensure that your arms do not touch the floor.
    2. Sitting and Rising: After the first prostration, rise by saying “Allahu Akbar” and sit upright with your knees bent, and place your palms on them. After a moment’s rest, prostrate again by saying “Allahu Akbar” and recite “Subhana rabbiyal ala” three times. This completes one rak’ah or one unit of Salah.
    3. Tashahhud: In the second rak’ah, or the final rak’ah of a two-unit Salah, remain seated after the second prostration and recite the Tashahhud quietly:
    • Supplication in Arabic: “اَلتَّحِيَّاتُ ِللَّهِ وَالصَّلَواتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ. اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ. أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إله إلا اللهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ.”
    • Translation: “All prayer is for Allah, and worship and goodness, peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the Mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and on the righteous servants of Allah. I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.”
    • After Tashahhud, you stand up for the remaining rak’ah in a three-unit Salah (as in Maghrib) or four-unit Salah (Zuhr, Asr, and Isha’). However, in a two-unit Salah (like Fajr), you remain seated after the second rak’ah.
    1. Additional Supplication (Du’a): After completing Tashahhud, you may say the du’a:
    • Supplication in Arabic: “رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَارْحَمْنِي وَاهْدِنِي وَعَافِنِي وَارْزُقْنِي.”
    • Translation: “O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, protect me, and provide for me.”

This guide covers the basic steps of Salah. Keep in mind that the number of rak’ahs and specific actions may vary depending on the type of Salah. Continue practicing and learning to perform Salah correctly.

during your prayer.


In a two-rak’ah Salah (like Fajr), you remain seated after the second rak’ah. Here, you recite blessings upon the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), known as “Aş- Salah ‘alan nabiy” or “Darid” in Arabic:

Supplication in Arabic: “اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ. كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ. اَللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَّجِيدٌ.”

    • Translation: “O Allah, let Your blessings come upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. Truly You are the Praiseworthy and Glorious. O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. Truly You are the Praiseworthy and Glorious.”
    1. After reciting the blessings, you can make additional supplications (du’as), such as:

Supplication in Arabic: “اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي ظُلْمًا كَثِيرًا وَلَا يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلا أَنتَ فَاغْفِرْ لي مَغْفِرَةً مِنْ عِنْدِكَ وَارْحَمْنِي إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْغَفُوْرُ الرَّحِيمُ.”

    • Translation: “O Allah, I have been very unjust to myself, and no one grants pardon against sins but You. Therefore, forgive me with Your forgiveness and have mercy on me. Surely, You are the Forgiver, the Merciful.”
    1. Then, turn your face to the right, saying “Assalamu ‘alaikum wa rahmatullah” (peace and the mercy of Allah be upon you), and then to the left, repeating the words.

This completes the two-rak’ah Salah. In the four-rak’ah Salah of Zuhr, Asr, and ‘Isha’, the whole procedure is repeated. However, when you get up to complete the remaining two rak’ah (one rak’ah in Maghrib and Witr) after Tashahhud, you only recite Al-Fatihah in Fard prayers and no other Surah. In a four-rak’ah Sunnah Salah, you should recite another Surah or part of the Qur’an after Al-Fatihah.

In the first two rak’ah of the Fard prayer of Fajr, Maghrib, and Isha, the Qur’an is recited aloud, while in Zuhr and ‘Asr, it is recited silently. During all prayers, Tasbih (Subhana rabbiyal azim and Subhana rabbiyal a’la), Tashahhud, and Darüd are said quietly. When Fajr, Maghrib, and ‘Isha’ prayers are said in congregation, only the Imam (the one who leads the prayer) recites the Qur’an aloud. This also applies to Jumu’ah prayer (Friday prayer in place of Zuhr).



Salatul Witr (The Witr Prayer):

Salatul Witr is an odd-numbered prayer consisting of three rak’ahs. The first two rak’ahs are performed in a manner similar to the first two rak’ahs of the Maghrib prayer. After the Tashahhud in the second rak’ah, you will stand up saying “Allahu akbar” for the third rak’ah. Here’s how to perform the Witr prayer:

  1. First and Second Rak’ahs (similar to Maghrib):
    • In the first two rak’ahs, recite Suratul Fatihah and any other verses from the Qur’an as you would in the Maghrib prayer.
  2. Third Rak’ah:
    • After the Tashahhud in the second rak’ah, stand up saying “Allahu akbar” to begin the third rak’ah.
  3. Recitation in the Third Rak’ah:
    • In the third rak’ah, recite Suratul Fatihah and some other verses from the Qur’an, just as you did in the first two rak’ahs.
  4. Du’a al-Qunut:
    • Before going into Ruku (bowing position), raise your hands up to your ears while saying “Allahu akbar.”
    • Recite the following supplication, known as Du’a al-Qunut, after placing your hands below your navel or on the chest:
      • Supplication in Arabic: “اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّا نَسْتَعِيْنُكَ وَنَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَنُؤْمِنُ بِكَ وَنَتَوَكَّلُ عَلَيْكَ وَنُثْنِي عَلَيْكَ الْخَيْرَ وَنَشْكُرُكَ وَلاَ نَكْفُرُكَ وَنَخْلَعُ وَنَتْرُكُ مَنْ يَفْجُرُكَ. اَللَّهُمَّ إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَلَكَ نُصَلِّي وَنَسْجُدُ وَإِلَيْكَ نَسْعَى وَنَحْفِدُ وَتَرْجُو رَحْمَتَكَ وَنَخْشَى عَذَابَكَ إِنَّ عَذَابَكَ بِالْكُفَّارِ مُلْحِقِّ.”
      • Translation: “O Allah, we seek Your help and ask Your forgiveness, and we believe in You and trust in You. We praise You in the best way, and we thank You. We are not ungrateful. We cast off and forsake him who disobeys You. O Allah, You alone we worship, and to You, we pray, prostrate, and turn in haste. We hope for Your mercy, and we fear Your punishment. Your punishment overtakes the unbelievers.”
  5. Bow Down in Ruku: After reciting Du’a al-Qunut, say “Allahu akbar” and bow down into Ruku, completing the rest of the prayer in the manner of the Maghrib prayer.

This concludes the Salatul Witr, a special prayer offered with an odd number of rak’ahs, usually performed after the Isha prayer.


Sajdatus Sahw (Prostration of Forgetfulness) in Salah:

As humans, we are prone to making mistakes and forgetting things during our prayers. To rectify these errors, we can perform Sajdatus Sahw, which involves making two additional prostrations (sujud) at the end of the last rak’ah of Salah (prayer). Here’s how to perform Sajdatus Sahw:

  1. When to Perform Sajdatus Sahw:
    • Sajdatus Sahw is done at the end of the last rak’ah of Salah.
    • It is necessary when you forget to perform essential actions or recitations during your Salah.
  2. Procedure:
    • After reciting the Tashahhud in your last rak’ah, turn your face to the right and say “Assalamu ‘alaikum wa rahmatullah” (peace and mercy of Allah be upon you) as you would when concluding the prayer.
    • Then, without saying “Assalamu ‘alaikum wa rahmatullah” to the left, immediately make two extra prostrations (sujud).
  3. During the Extra Prostrations (Sujud):
    • In each prostration, recite Tasbih (Subhana rabbial a’la) at least once, as is done in regular sujud.
  4. After the Extra Prostrations:
    • After the extra prostrations, recite the Tashahhud again, including As-Salah ‘alan nabiy and du’a’ (supplication).
  5. Concluding the Prayer:
    • Finally, turn your face first to the right and then to the left, saying “Assalamu ‘alaikum wa rahmatullah” as you do when ending the prayer.

Instances Where Sajdatus Sahw is Necessary: Sajdatus Sahw becomes necessary in the following situations when you forget to perform essential actions in your Salah:

  1. Missing the Niyah (intention).
  2. Omitting Takbiratul Iḥram.
  3. Forgetting to recite Al-Fatihah.
  4. Missing or not properly performing Ruku’ (bowing) or Sujud (prostration).
  5. Not facing the Qiblah (direction of the Kaaba).
  6. Not having Wudu (ablution).
  7. Speaking during Salah.
  8. Eating or drinking during Salah.
  9. Failing to sit for Tashahhud.

If any of these mistakes occur, you must repeat your Salah entirely; Sajdatus Sahw alone will not suffice to correct these errors.

Some du’a’ after Salah

Here are some supplications (du’a) that you can recite after your Salah. While you can make du’a in your own words and language, it’s also beneficial to memorize and recite these du’as in Arabic:

  1. Rabbana atina fiddunya hasanah, wa fil akhirati hasanah, wa qina ‘adhabannar
    • رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ.
    • Translation: Our Lord, grant us good in this world, and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the punishment of Hellfire. (Suratul Baqarah 2:201)
  2. Rabbana zalamna anfusana wa illam taghfirlana wa tarḥamna lanakūnanna minal knasirin
    • ربَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنْفُسَنَا وَإِنْ لَمْ تَغْفِرْلَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَسِرِينَ.
    • Translation: Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves, and if You do not forgive us and have no mercy upon us, surely, we will be among those who are losers. (Suratul A’raf 7:23)
  3. Allahumma antas salamu wa minkas salāmu tabarakta yadhal jalali wal ikram
    • اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَمِنْكَ السَّلاَمُ تَبَارَكْتَ يَا ذَا الْجَلاَلِ وَالْإِكْرَام.
    • Translation: O Allah, You are the source of peace, and from You comes peace. Exalted are You, O Lord of Majesty and Honour. (Hadith, Muslim)
  4. La ilaha illallahu wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahui mulku wa lahul hamdu wa huwa ‘ala kulli shai ‘in qadir. Allahumma la mani’a lima a taita wa la mutiya limā mana ta, wa la yunfa ‘u thal jaddi mink al judd
    • لا إله إلا الله وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ، اَللَّهُمَّ لاَ مَانِعَ لِمَا أَعْطَيْتَ، وَلاَ مُعْطِيَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ، وَلاَ يَنْفَعُ ذَا الْجَدِّ مِنْكَ الْجَدُّ.
    • Translation: There is no god but Allah, and He is One and has no partner. Sovereignty is His, all praise is His, and He has power over all things. O Allah, no one can prevent what You bestow, and none can bestow what You prevent, and no wealth or might can benefit anyone against You. (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

These supplications serve as a way to seek forgiveness, blessings, and guidance from Allah at the conclusion of your Salah.


Friday Prayer (Salatul Jumu’ah)

Introduction: The Congregational Friday Prayer

Salatul Jumu’ah, commonly known as the Friday Prayer, holds a special place in the Islamic tradition. This prayer is observed collectively, and it is obligatory for all adult Muslim men to participate. Salatul Jumu’ah takes place on Fridays during the Zuhr time, the period of the midday prayer. While not obligatory for women, they can attend if it does not disrupt their household responsibilities.

  1. Gathering for Salatul Jumu’ah

Muslims come together for Salatul Jumu’ah right after noon. Upon arriving at the mosque or prayer hall, they engage in the Sunnah prayer, consisting of four or more rak’ahs. Following the Sunnah prayer, the Imam, the prayer leader, delivers a Khutbah or sermon. After the sermon, the congregation performs the Fard prayer, which consists of two rak’ahs.

  1. Individual Sunnah and Nafl Prayers

Following the Fard prayer, each individual offers six or more rak’ahs of Sunnah and Nafl prayers. These additional prayers are performed individually by those in attendance.

  1. Salatul Jumu’ah as a Community Event

Salatul Jumu’ah is a communal prayer that brings Muslims together every week, fostering a sense of unity and cooperation. In earlier times, mosques served as the hub of Islamic activities, but this is not always the case today.

  1. Promoting Unity and Cooperation

Friday prayer serves as an occasion for Muslims to assemble in a particular locality, providing them with an opportunity to discuss and address community issues. It encourages unity, cooperation, and mutual understanding among the members of the community.

  1. Salatul Jumu’ah in an Islamic State

In an Islamic state, it is the responsibility of the Head of State or their representative to lead the five daily prayers and the Friday prayer at the central mosque in the capital city, just as Prophet Muhammad did during his leadership in Madinah.

Conclusion: Reviving a Commendable Tradition

Imagine the significance of living in a country where the Head of State or their representative leads the prayer in the central mosque of the capital! Let us pray that Allah guides us to revive this tradition in all Islamic states. Ameen!


Salatut Tahajjud – The Night Prayer

Introduction: The Special Significance of Salatut Tahajjud

Salatut Tahajjud, also known as the Night Prayer, holds a unique place in Islamic practice. It was a prayer that Allah commanded Prophet Muhammad to perform, allowing him to attain a position of honor and glory and prepare for the challenging role of prophethood. Allah’s instruction is found in the Quran: “And in some parts of the night, offer the prayer with recitation of the Qur’an as an additional prayer for you. It may be that your Lord will raise you to a position of praise and glory.” (Suratul Isra’ 17:19).

  1. The Practice of Qiyamul Lail

To fulfill this command, the Prophet engaged in Qiyamul Lail, which means standing in prayer during the night for approximately half of it. During this time, he recited the Quran with a slow and melodious tone (Suratul Muzzammil 73:1-6). This practice is highly esteemed in Islam, as it allows devout Muslims to seek Allah’s favor, forgiveness, and pleasure (Süratudh Dhariyat 51:15-16, Saratul Furqan 25:64, Süratus Sajdah 32:16, Suratuz Zumar 39:9).

  1. Seeking Righteousness and Piety (Taqwa)

Salatut Tahajjud plays a pivotal role in cultivating righteousness and piety (Taqwa) among believers. It serves as a means to align one’s actions with their words and draw closer to the Loving and Generous Creator who has provided for them. This prayer helps in deepening one’s faith and commitment.

  1. The Timing and Structure of Salatut Tahajjud

Salatut Tahajjud is performed between the Salatul Isha’ (evening prayer) and Salatul Fajr (dawn prayer). It consists of two rak’ahs (units of prayer) at a time. During this prayer, the Quran should be recited in a calm, rhythmic manner, with individuals encouraged to recite as much as they can. If certain it won’t be missed, Salatul Witr (a unique prayer) can be delayed until immediately after Salatut Tahajjud, as long as it is completed before dawn.

  1. A Time for Reflection and Supplication

Salatut Tahajjud provides an opportunity to escape the distractions of worldly life and focus on preparing for the eternal life in the Hereafter. During the quietness of the night, obedient servants of Allah can beseech their Creator for all they need to fulfill their role as representatives (Khalifah) of Allah on Earth. It is a time for sincere tears, asking for forgiveness, mercy, and seeking a position of peace, happiness, and bliss in both this life and the Hereafter.

The Importance of Salatut Tahajjud

Though challenging, Salatut Tahajjud holds immense importance and benefit for those who engage in it regularly. May Allah grant us the strength and devotion to perform this prayer as often as possible. Ameen.


Funeral Prayer (Salatul Janazah)

Death is a natural event that everyone will experience. When a Muslim passes away, it is customary to perform the Salatul Janazah, or the Funeral Prayer, in congregation. This special prayer is distinct from regular Salah (prayer) as it does not involve bowing (ruku) or prostration (sujood), and there is no need to recite the Tashahhud. It is considered a collective obligation (Fard Kifayah) for all Muslims in the locality of the deceased. If a sufficient number of people participate, the duty is fulfilled for the entire community. However, if no one joins, the entire locality bears the sin before Allah.

How to Perform Salatul Janazah:

  1. Intention (Niyah): Begin by making the intention that you are offering this prayer to Allah for the deceased person.
  2. Formation: Stand in rows facing the Qiblah (the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca). The deceased person’s body is placed in front of the congregation on a bier.
  3. Takbiratul Ihram: After the Imam says “Allahu akbar” (Allah is the Greatest), raise your hands up to your ears, then bring them down, placing them on or below your chest, with the right hand on top of the left.
  4. Supplication: Quietly recite the following supplication:

سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ وَتَبَارَكَ اسْمُكَ وَتَعَالَى جَدُّكَ وَجَلَّ ثَنَاءُكَ وَلَا إله غَيْرُكَ

  • Subhanakallahumma wa bihamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta’ala jadduka wa jalla thana uka wa la ilaha ghairuk (or you may read ghairuka).
  • Translation: “O Allah, glory and praise are for You, and blessed is Your Name, and exalted is Your Majesty, and Glorious is Your Praise, and there is no god but You.”
  1. Recitation of Darud (Salutations upon the Prophet): After the Imam says “Allahu akbar” again, you should quietly recite the following Darud:


اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّد
كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ
إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَّجِيد
اَللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ
كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ
أَنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَّجِيد


  • Allahumma şalli ‘ala Muhammadin wa ‘ala ali Muhammadin, kama sallaita ‘ala Ibrahima wa ‘ala ali Ibrahima innaka hamidum majid.
  • Allahumma barik ala Muḥammadin wa ‘ala ali Muhammadin, Kama barakta ‘ala Ibrahima wa ‘ala ali Ibrahima innaka hamidum majid.
  • Translation: “O Allah, let Your blessings come upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. Truly You are the Praiseworthy and Glorious.”
  1. Supplication for the Deceased: Depending on the deceased’s gender, age, and status, recite an appropriate supplication:

For an adult male Muslim:




اَللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِحَيْنَا وَمَيْتِنَا وَشَاهِدِنَا وَغَائِبِنَا وَصَغِيْرنَا وَكَبِيْرنَا وَذَكرنَا

وَأَنْثَانَا . اَللَّهُمَّ مَنْ أَحْيَيْتَهُ مِنَّا فَأَحْبِهِ عَلَى الإِسْلامِ وَمَنْ تَوَفَّيْتَهُ مِنَّا

فَتَوَفَّهُ عَلَى الإِيْمَانِ



    • “Allahummaghfir lihaiyina wa maiyitina wa shahidina wa gha’ibina wa saghirina wa kabirina wa dhakarina wa unthānā. Allahumma man aḥyaitahu minnā fa’aḥyihi alal islāmi wa man tawaffaitahu minna fatawaffahu ‘alal iman.”
    • Translation: “O Allah, forgive those of us who are still alive and those who have passed away, those present and those absent, our young and elderly, the males and the females. O Allah, he whom You wish to keep alive from among us, make him live according to Islam, and he whom You wish to die from among us, let him die in the state of iman (faith).”

For an adult female Muslim:



اَللَّهُمَّ مَنْ أَحْيَيْتَهَا مِنَّا فَأَحْيِهَا عَلَى الإِسْلامِ وَمَنْ تَوَفَّيْتَهَا مِنَّا فَتَوَفَّهَا
عَلَى الإِيْمَانِ .


    • “Allahumma man ahyaitaka minna fa’aḥyiha ‘alai islami wa man tawaffaitaha minna fatawaffaha ‘alai iman.”
    • Translation: “O Allah, she whom You wish to keep alive from among us, make her live according to Islam, and she whom You wish to die from among us, let her die in the state of iman.”

For a deceased boy:



اَللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ لَنَا فَرْطًا وَاجْعَلْهُ لَنَا أَجْرًا وَذُخْرًا وَاجْعَلْهُ لَنَا شَافِعًا


    • “Allahummaj’allu lana fartaw waj’aihu lana ajraw wa dhukhraw waj’alhu lana shafi’aw wa mushaffa an.”
    • Translation: “O Allah, make him our forerunner and make him for us a reward and a treasure; make him one who will plead for us, and accept his pleading.”

For a deceased girl:



اَللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهَا لَنَا فَرْطًا وَاجْعَلْهَا لَنَا أَجْرًا وَذُخْرًا وَاجْعَلْهَا لَنَا شَافِعَةً




    • “Allahummaj’alha lana fartaw waj’alha lana ajraw wa dhukhraw waj’alha lana shafi’ataw wa mushaffa’atan.”
    • Translation: “O Allah, make her our forerunner and make her for us a reward and a treasure: make her one who will plead for us, and accept her pleading.”
  1. Fourth Takbir: After reciting the appropriate du’a for the deceased, the Imam says the fourth Takbir loudly, and the congregation repeats it quietly.
  2. Salam: Finally, the Imam turns his face first to the right, saying “Assalamu ‘alaikum wa rahmatullah” (peace and mercy of Allah be upon you), and then to the left, repeating the same words. Follow the Imam, repeating the words quietly.

This completes the Salatul Janazah, offering prayers for the deceased as a collective duty of the Muslim community.


Tarawih Prayer (Salatut Tarawih)

Introduction: Tarawih is a special prayer performed during the Islamic month of Ramadan. It typically consists of twenty rak’ahs (units of prayer) and takes place after the two Sunnah rak’ahs of the Isha prayer but before the three rak’ahs of Witr prayer. Tarawih is often conducted in congregation at a mosque, led by an Imam, who is often a Hafiz (someone who has memorized the entire Quran). This prayer is performed in sets of two rak’ahs, similar to the two rak’ahs of the Fajr (dawn) prayer, with a brief rest after every four rak’ahs. The Imam recites the Quran audibly, and the congregation listens attentively and follows along, just as in any obligatory (Fard) Salah.

Purpose of Tarawih: Tarawih is a crucial component of the spiritual regimen observed during the month of Ramadan. It serves several purposes:

  1. Spiritual Training: Tarawih offers Muslims an opportunity to strengthen their faith and spirituality. The act of fasting during the day and engaging in extended nightly prayers helps individuals draw closer to Allah and deepen their connection with Him.
  2. Self-Discipline: Fasting during Ramadan not only entails abstaining from food and drink but also from worldly desires and negative behaviors. Tarawih complements fasting by promoting self-discipline and self-control.
  3. Preparation for Jihad: The term “Jihad fi sabi lillah” refers to striving one’s utmost in the way of Allah. Tarawih, as a form of worship, helps believers prepare for this spiritual struggle by purifying their hearts and minds.

Tarawih Prayer in Detail: Tarawih prayer involves standing in long Rak’ahs, with each set of two rak’ahs followed by a short break. The Imam recites the Quran aloud, allowing the congregation to benefit from the beautiful recitation. It is worth noting that the number of rak’ahs performed in Tarawih can vary among individuals and communities. While some Muslims pray twenty rak’ahs, others may opt for eight, ten, twelve, or any number they are comfortable with, up to a maximum of thirty-six rak’ahs.

Conclusion: Tarawih prayer is a significant aspect of Ramadan, providing an opportunity for Muslims to intensify their devotion, seek forgiveness, and draw nearer to Allah. It complements the act of fasting and helps individuals develop self-discipline, spiritual strength, and readiness for the challenges of life, including the spiritual struggle (Jihad) in the path of Allah.


Eid Prayers (Salatul Idain)

Introduction: In Islam, there are two major festivals celebrated each year: ‘Eid ul-Fitr and ‘Eid ul-Adha. On both of these joyous occasions, Muslims come together to perform a special congregational prayer known as Salatul Idain. These prayers are typically conducted in the morning, sometime after sunrise but before noon. Unlike regular prayers, there is no Adhan (call to prayer) or Iqamah (call to commence the prayer) for ‘Eid prayers. One distinctive feature of Salatul Idain is the recitation of additional Takbirs (declarations of “Allahu akbar”).

Salatul Idain Procedure:

  • Timing: ‘Eid prayers are performed in the morning.
  • Congregational: It is highly recommended to perform ‘Eid prayers in congregation, and Muslims of all ages, including men, women, and children, should participate.
  • Takbirs: A notable aspect of Salatul Idain is the recitation of Takbirs. These are additional declarations of “Allahu akbar” made before specific parts of the prayer.
    • In the first rak’ah, you recite either three or seven Takbirs. These Takbirs are said after the opening praise of Allah (Thana’ or Subḥānaka) and the initial Takbir (Takbiratul Ihram).
    • In the second rak’ah, before bowing down (ruku), you recite either three or five Takbirs.
  • Prayer Sequence: Apart from the extra Takbirs, the rest of the ‘Eid prayer follows a pattern similar to the two obligatory rak’ahs of the Friday prayer (Salatul Jumu’ah).
  • Khutbah (Sermon): After completing the ‘Eid prayers, a Khutbah (sermon) is delivered. Unlike the Friday prayer (Salatul Jumu’ah), where the Khutbah precedes the two obligatory rak’ahs, in ‘Eid prayers, the Khutbah is given after the prayer.

Purpose of ‘Eid Prayers: ‘Eid prayers serve multiple purposes for Muslims:

  1. Thanksgiving: Muslims gather for ‘Eid prayers to express gratitude to Allah for granting them the opportunity to celebrate and be joyful on these special occasions.
  2. Community Unity: These prayers foster a sense of unity and togetherness within the Muslim community as people come together to celebrate the festivals.
  3. Charity and Generosity: ‘Eid also emphasizes the importance of charity and sharing blessings with those less fortunate, as Muslims are encouraged to provide for those in need during these festive times.

In summary, Salatul Idain is a significant part of ‘Eid celebrations in Islam, bringing the community together in prayer, thanksgiving, and unity. It is a time to rejoice and show generosity to others, embodying the spirit of these special occasions.


Shortening of Prayer for Travelers (Salatul Musafir)

In Islam, when a Muslim embarks on a journey, there are specific adjustments allowed in their regular prayers to accommodate the challenges of travel. This modification is called Salatul Musafir, and it involves shortening certain prayers.

Shortening of Salah: A Muslim traveler is permitted to shorten a four-rak’ah Fard Salah (obligatory prayer) to two rak’ahs. This applies to the Fard prayers of Zuhr, Asr, and Isha. It’s important to note that the Fard prayers of Fajr (dawn) and Maghrib (evening) remain unchanged and are performed in full.

The Quranic Guidance: The Quran, in Suratun-Nisa (4:101), mentions: “And when you go forth in the land, it is no sin for you to shorten your Salah.” This verse provides the basis for shortening prayers while traveling.

Sunna and Nafl Salah: It’s worth noting that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) used to maintain the two-rak’ah Sunnah prayer before the obligatory two rak’ahs of Fajr, and he would perform three rak’ahs of Witr, even during his journeys. However, these Sunnah and Nafl (voluntary) prayers can be omitted when traveling.

Conditions for Shortening Salah: A traveler can shorten their Fard Salah under the following conditions:

  1. The journey distance must be forty-eight miles or more away from their home.
  2. The intention of staying at a location during the journey should be less than fifteen days. Even if the traveler’s plans change, and they extend their stay beyond fifteen days, they can continue to shorten the four-rak’ah Fard prayers of Zuhr, Asr, and Isha, while leaving out the Sunnah and Nafl Salah.

Praying Behind an Imam: When a traveler prays behind an Imam (prayer leader) who is a local resident (Muqim) for the Fard prayers of Zuhr, Asr, or Isha, the traveler (Musafir) will complete all four rak’ahs. However, if the Imam is also a traveler (Musafir), then the Musafir follower (Muqtadi) will shorten the Salah like the Imam. A Muqim Muqtadi (resident follower) must complete the four rak’ahs by standing up when the Imam says “Assalamu’alaikum…” and perform the last two rak’ahs as a normal Fard Salah, reciting Suratul Fatihah.

In summary, Salatul Musafir allows travelers to shorten the Fard prayers of Zuhr, Asr, and Isha to two rak’ahs each. This adjustment eases the worship responsibilities for those on a journey, following the Quranic guidance and the practice of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).


Prayer for Guidance (Salatul Istikharah)

Introduction: Salatul Istikharah is a special prayer in Islam that seeks Allah’s guidance when a Muslim is uncertain about a decision or course of action. This prayer, consisting of two rak’ahs, is typically performed after the ‘Isha’ (night) prayer and before bedtime. It is a Sunnah practice established by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

Performing Salatul Istikharah: The process of Salatul Istikharah is similar to any other two-rak’ah Salah. After completing the prayer, a specific supplication (du’a) is recited to seek Allah’s guidance. Here’s the transliteration and translation of the du’a:

Arabic Du’a: “اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْتَخِيرُكَ بِعِلْمِكَ وَأَسْتَقْدِرُكَ بِقُدْرَتِكَ، وَأَسْتَلُكَ مِنْ فَضْلِكَ الْعَظِيمِ، فَإِنَّكَ تَقْدِرُ وَلَا أَقْدِرُ وَتَعْلَمُ وَلَا أَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتَ عَلَامُ الْغُيُوبِ. اللَّهُمَّ إِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ هَذَا الْأَمْرَ (mention your matter here) خَيْرٌ لِي فِي دِينِي وَمَعَاشِي وَعَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِي فَاقْدُرْهُ لِي وَيَسِّرْهُ لِي ثُمَّ بَارِكْ لِي فِيهِ، وَإِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ هَذَا الْأَمْرَ شَرٌّ لِي فِي دِينِي وَمَعَاشِي وَعَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِي فَاصْرِفْهُ عَنِّي وَاصْرِفْنِي عَنْهُ وَاقْدُرْ لِيَ الْخَيْرَ حَيْثُ كَانَ ثُمَّ أَرْضِنِي بِهِ.”

Transliteration: “Allahumma inni astakhiruka bi ‘ilmika wastaqdiruka biqudratika, wa as ‘aluka min fadlikai azim, fa innaka taqdiru wa la aqdiru wa ta’lamu wa la a’lamu wa anta ‘alamul ghuyub. Allahumma in kunta ta’lamu anna hadhal amra (mention your matter here) khairun li fi deeni wa ma’ashi wa aqibati amri faqdurhu li wa yassirhu li thumma barik li fihi, wa in kunta talamu anna hadhal amra sharun li fi deeni wa ma’ashi wa aqibati amri faşrifhu ‘anni waşrifni ‘anhu waqdur li alkhaira haithu kana thumma ardinibih.”

Meaning of the Du’a: In this supplication, a Muslim seeks Allah’s guidance, acknowledging His knowledge, power, and infinite bounty. The believer asks Allah to make the matter in question favorable if it is good for their faith, livelihood, and future. Conversely, they request that Allah turn it away if it is harmful. Ultimately, they seek Allah’s decree for the best outcome and pray for contentment with His decision.

Salatul Istikharah serves as a means for Muslims to navigate life’s decisions, placing their trust in Allah’s wisdom and guidance.


Making Up Missed Prayers (Qada of As-Salah)

Muslims are obligated to perform their daily Salah (prayers) at their designated times. However, certain circumstances, such as forgetfulness or oversleeping, may lead to missed prayers. In Islam, it is crucial to make every effort to offer prayers on time. Still, if a prayer is missed due to unavoidable situations, it must be compensated for later, and this makeup prayer is known as Salatul Qada.

Performing Missed Prayers: The five daily Fard Salah (obligatory prayers) are a fundamental duty to Allah, and Muslims are required to fulfill them punctually. If a prayer is unintentionally missed, it should be made up for as soon as possible. Salatul Qada is the term used for these makeup prayers.

Key Points:

  1. Compulsory Duty: Performing the Fard Salah is a mandatory obligation for every Muslim.
  2. Unavoidable Circumstances: Missed prayers may occur due to situations beyond one’s control, like forgetfulness or oversleeping.
  3. Making Up Missed Prayers: Whenever a Fard Salah is missed, Muslims should aim to perform the makeup prayer later to fulfill their obligation to Allah.
  4. Importance of Timeliness: While making up missed prayers is essential, it is crucial to prioritize performing prayers on time to avoid such situations.

Salatul Qada underscores the significance of regular and punctual prayer while offering a means of redemption for missed prayers due to genuine reasons.

Eleven Surahs of the Quran

Lessons from As-Salah (Prayer)

Salah, the act of prayer, holds a paramount position among the five fundamental duties of Islam, following the declaration of faith (Shahadah). It serves as a means to draw closer to Allah, provided it is performed consistently, correctly, and with profound awareness of its significance and purpose. Understanding the essence of our creation and the necessity of fulfilling Islamic obligations is essential in appreciating the value of Salah.

Purpose of Our Creation: Allah has created humanity to worship Him exclusively, as stated in the Quran: “Indeed, I created jinn and mankind only to worship Me.” (Suratudh Dhariyat 51:56) Therefore, every Islamic duty, including Salah, should be carried out with the intention of seeking Allah’s pleasure and nearness.

Significance of Salah: Salah holds immense importance in the life of a Muslim. It is a means to:

  1. Draw Closer to Allah: Regular and sincere performance of Salah brings individuals closer to Allah.
  2. Abstain from Wrongdoings: It acts as a deterrent, preventing individuals from engaging in indecent, shameful, or prohibited activities.
  3. Self-Control: Salah serves as a training regimen, aiding in the control of base desires and passions.
  4. Spiritual Purification: It purifies the heart, sharpens the mind, and provides solace to the soul.
  5. Constant Remembrance: Salah serves as a continuous reminder of Allah and His magnificence.
  6. Discipline and Willpower: It fosters discipline and strengthens one’s willpower.
  7. Guide to Upright Living: Salah offers guidance on living a virtuous life.
  8. Equality and Unity: It demonstrates true equality, fosters solid unity, and encourages universal brotherhood.
  9. Inner Strength: Salah instills qualities like patience, courage, hope, and confidence.
  10. Cleanliness and Punctuality: It promotes cleanliness, purity, and punctuality.
  11. Gratitude and Humility: Salah develops gratitude, humility, and refinement of character.
  12. Obedience to the Creator: It showcases our obedience to the Creator.
  13. Matching Actions with Words: Salah prepares individuals to align their actions with their words.
  14. Preparation for Jihad: It serves as a robust program for preparing oneself to strive wholeheartedly in the path of Allah (Jihad).

Conclusion: If Salah does not lead to an improvement in one’s conduct and character, it necessitates sincere reflection to identify where the deficiency lies. Salah, when performed with devotion and understanding, brings about a positive transformation in the life of a believer.





Ayatul Kursi (The Throne Verse)

Allah has revealed a special verse in the Qur’an known as Ayatul Kursi (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255), which holds great significance.

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, “The greatest verse in the Book of Allah is ‘Allah! There is no god but Him, the Ever-living, the One Who Sustains and Protects all that exists.'” (Sahih Muslim)

He also advised, “When you go to bed, recite Ayatul Kursi: ‘Allah! There is no god but Him, the Ever-living, the One Who Sustains and Protects all that exists,’ to the end, for then there will remain over you a guardian from Allah, and Satan will not come near you until morning.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

Ayatul Kursi:

Allahu la ilaha illa huwal haiyul qaiyūm, La ta khudhuhu sinatun w wa la nawm, Lahu ma fis samawati wa ma fil ard. Man dhal ladhi yashfa ‘u indah illa bi idhnih, Ya’lamu ma baina aidihim wa ma khalfahum, Wa la yuḥituna bishai’im min ilmihi illa bima sha’a, Wa si’a kursiyuhus samawati wal ard, Wa la ya’uduhu hifzuhuma, Wa huwal aliyyul azeem.

Translation (English):

Allah! There is no god but Him, the Ever-living, the One Who Sustains and Protects all that exists. Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and on the earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter. And they will never encompass anything of His knowledge except what He wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.

Ayatul Kursi is a powerful declaration of the greatness of Allah and His attributes. It is often recited by Muslims for protection and as an expression of faith in the All-Powerful and All-Knowing Creator.


Declaration of Faith

الشَّهَادَة: Declaration of Faith

The declaration of faith, known as Shahadah, is the core belief in Islam. It is a simple yet profound affirmation of one’s faith in Allah (God) and the Prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him). It is divided into three parts:

  1. Al-Kalimatut Taiyibah (The Pure Declaration): Arabic Text: لا إله إلا اللهُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللهِ Transliteration: La ilaha illallahu Muhammadur rasulullah. Translation: There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.

This part of the declaration emphasizes the monotheistic belief in the oneness of Allah and the prophethood of Muhammad.

2. Kalimatush Shahadah

 (The Testimonial Declaration): Arabic Text: أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إله إلا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ Transliteration: Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallahu wahdahu la sharika lahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasiluh. Translation: I testify that there is no god but Allah, and He is One, having no partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.

This part reaffirms the belief in the oneness of Allah and acknowledges the prophethood of Muhammad.

3. Al-Imanil Mujmal

(The Comprehensive Belief): Arabic Text: آمَنْتُ بِاللهِ كَمَا هُوَ بِأَسْمَائِهِ وَصفَاتِهِ وَقَبِلْتُ جَمِيْعَ أَحْكَامِهِ Transliteration: Amantu billahi kama huwa bi’asma ‘ihi wa sifatihi wa qabiltu jami’a ahkamiha. Translation: I believe in Allah (as He is) with all His names and attributes, and I accept all His commands.


  1. Al-Imanul Mufassal (The Detailed Belief):

Arabic Text: آمَنْتُ بِاللهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَالْقَدْرِ خَيْرِه وَشَرِّهِ مِنَ اللهِ تَعَالَى وَالْبَعْثِ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ.

Transliteration: Amantu billahi wa malaikatili wa kutubihi wa rusulihi wal yawmu! akhiri wal qudri khairi wa sharriki minullāhi ta’à la wal bathi ba’dal mawt.

Translation: I believe in Allah, in His angels, in His books, in His messengers, in the last day, and in the fact that everything good or bad is decided by Allah, the Almighty, and in the life after death.

This comprehensive statement of belief encompasses the following aspects:

  • Belief in Allah (God) as the One and Only.
  • Belief in the angels created by Allah.
  • Belief in the divine books revealed by Allah to His messengers.
  • Belief in the prophets and messengers sent by Allah throughout history.
  • Belief in the Last Day, which includes the Day of Judgment.
  • Belief in divine decree (Qadr), acknowledging that Allah’s will encompasses both good and bad, and nothing happens without His knowledge and decree.
  • Belief in the resurrection and life after death.

This declaration provides a detailed and comprehensive understanding of the core beliefs in Islam, emphasizing the interconnectedness of these fundamental concepts in the faith of a Muslim.

5. Kalimah Raddil Kufr (Rejection of Disbelief)

This declaration serves as a way for Muslims to reject disbelief and affirm their faith in Islam. It contains the following words:

Arabic Text: اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُبِكَ مِنْ أَنْ أُشْرِكَ بِكَ شَيْئًا وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ وَاسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لَا أَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ عَلَّامُ الْغُيُوبِ تُبْتُ عَنْهُ وَتَبَرَّأْتُ عَنْ كُلِّ دِينٍ سِوَى دِيْنِ الإِسْلامِ وَأَسْلَمْتُ وَأَقُوْلُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللهِ

Transliteration: Allahumma inni a dhubika min an ushrika bika shai’an wa anna a’lamu wastaghfiruka lima la a’lamu innaka anta ‘alamul ghuyubi tubtu ‘anhu wa tabarra’tu ‘an kulli dinin siwa dinil islami wa aslamu wa aqulu la ilaha illallahu muḥammadur rasulullah.

Translation: O Allah, surely I do seek refuge in You from making any partner with You knowingly; I beg Your forgiveness for the sins which I am not aware of; surely, You are the knower of all secrets. I repent for all the sins and make myself proof against all religions except Islam, and I accepted it and declare that there is no god but Allah. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.

This declaration reaffirms the rejection of associating partners with Allah (shirk), seeks forgiveness for unknown sins, and affirms the exclusive belief in Islam as the true religion. It concludes with the declaration of faith, “There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.”

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